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adhd

Treatment for Adult ADHD

你正在与注意缺陷多动障碍作斗争吗? There are many safe, 有效的治疗会有帮助——这并不意味着一定要吃药或去看医生.

玩电子游戏的中年男子

药物只是一种工具,而不是治疗成人多动症的方法

当你想到注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)的治疗时, previously known as ADD, 你会立刻用利他林还是阿得拉? 许多人把多动症的治疗等同于药物治疗. 但重要的是要明白,治疗ADHD的药物并不是对每个人都有效, and even when it does work, 它不会解决你所有的问题或完全消除症状.

In fact, 而治疗ADHD的药物通常能提高注意力和注意力, 它通常对帮助紊乱的症状起不到什么作用, poor time management, forgetfulness, 还有拖延——这是最严重的问题 对许多患有多动症的成年人来说都是一个问题.

药物治疗多动症的方法与其他治疗方法相结合会更有效. You will get much more out of your medication if you also take advantage of other treatments that address emotional and behavioral issues and teach you new coping skills.

每个人对ADHD药物的反应都不一样. 一些人经历了显著的改善,而另一些人经历了很少或没有缓解. The side effects also differ from person to person and, for some, they far outweigh the benefits. 因为每个人的反应都不一样,所以找到合适的药物和剂量需要时间.

注意缺陷多动障碍的药物治疗应始终密切监控. Medication treatment for ADHD involves more than just taking a pill and forgetting about it. 你和你的医生需要监测副作用, 时刻关注自己的感受, 并相应地调整剂量. When medication for ADHD is not carefully monitored, it becomes less effective and more risky.

If you choose to take medication for ADHD, that doesn’t mean you have to stay on it forever. 尽管反复服用任何药物都不安全, you can safely decide to stop treating your ADHD with medication if things aren’t going well. 如果你想停止服药, be sure to let your doctor know your plans and work with them to taper off your medication slowly.

治疗并不局限于药物治疗. 你采取的任何措施来控制你的症状都可以被视为治疗. 虽然你可能想寻求专业的帮助, ultimately, you are the one in charge. 你不必等待诊断结果或依赖专业人士. 你可以做很多事情来帮助自己——你可以从今天开始.

有规律的锻炼是治疗多动症的有效方法

Exercising regularly is one of the easiest and most effective ways to reduce the symptoms of ADHD in adults and improve concentration, motivation, memory, and mood. Physical activity 消耗掉多余的能量,这些能量会导致冲动. 它还能立即提高大脑的多巴胺, norepinephrine, 血清素水平——所有这些都影响注意力和注意力. 在这种情况下,运动和治疗多动症的药物,如利他林和阿得拉,都有类似的效果. But unlike ADHD medication, exercise doesn’t require a prescription and it’s side-effect free.

尽量在大多数日子里锻炼. 你不需要去健身房. 每周散步四次,每次30分钟,就足够了. 每天运动30分钟就更好了.

选择一些你喜欢的东西,这样你就会坚持下去. Choose activities that play to your physical strengths or that you find challenging yet fun. 团队运动可能是一个很好的选择,因为社交元素会让它们变得有趣.

Get out into nature. 研究表明,花时间在大自然中可以减少多动症的症状. 把“绿色时间”和锻炼结合起来,就能加倍受益. 尝试徒步旅行,在野外跑步,或者在当地的公园或风景区散步.

睡眠在多动症治疗中的重要性

许多患有ADHD的成年人都有睡眠困难. 最常见的问题包括:

晚上难以入睡, 通常是因为思绪纷乱让你无法入睡.

Restless sleep. You may toss and turn throughout the night, tear the covers off, and wake up at any little noise.

早上起床困难. 起床是每天的挣扎. You may sleep through multiple alarms and feel groggy and irritable for hours after getting up.

睡眠质量差会使注意力缺陷多动症的症状恶化, 因此,有规律的睡眠时间表是至关重要的. 提高睡眠质量 对你的注意力、专注力和情绪有很大的影响吗.

改善睡眠的小贴士

有固定的就寝时间并坚持吗每天早上在同一时间起床,即使你很累.

确保你的卧室是完全黑暗的 and keep electronics out (even the dim light from digital clocks or your cellphone can disrupt sleep).

在一天的晚些时候避免摄入咖啡因,或者考虑完全戒掉.

睡前安静一两个小时. 试着关掉所有的屏幕(电视、电脑、智能手机等).),至少在就寝前一小时.

如果你的药物让你晚上睡不着,与你的医生讨论服用较低的剂量或在一天的早些时候服用.

正确的饮食可以帮助你控制多动症的症状

说到饮食,管理注意力缺陷多动症是一个很重要的问题 how you eat as what you eat. Most of the nutritional problems among adults with ADHD are the result of impulsiveness and poor planning. 你的目标是注意你的饮食习惯. 这意味着计划和购买健康的饮食, scheduling meal times, 在你已经饿了之前准备食物, and keeping healthful, easy snacks on hand so you don’t have to run to the vending machine or grab dinner at Burger King.

定期用餐或吃零食的时间间隔不要超过三个小时. Many people with ADHD eat erratically—often going without a meal for hours and then binging on whatever is around. 这对你的多动症症状或你的情绪和身体健康都没有好处.

确保你摄入足够的量 饮食中要含有锌、铁和镁. 如果你不确定,可以考虑每天服用复合维生素.

试着在每餐或零食中加入一些蛋白质和复合碳水化合物. 这些食物会帮助你在减少过度活动的同时更加警觉. 他们也会给你稳定、持久的能量.

Avoid junk food. 虽然其中的联系还没有被证实, many experts believe that food colorings and additives often found in junk foods and sodas may trigger or exacerbate ADHD symptoms.

减少糖和咖啡因的摄入. 365真人很多人喝咖啡因或吃含糖食物来快速补充能量, 但这可能很快就会导致情绪崩溃, energy, and focus. Cutting back may help to keep your blood sugar levels stable throughout the day and improve your sleep at night.

在你的饮食中添加更多的omega-3脂肪酸. 越来越多的研究表明,omega-3脂肪酸可以改善多动症患者的精神集中. -3脂肪酸存在于鲑鱼、金枪鱼、沙丁鱼以及一些强化鸡蛋和奶制品中. 而从食物中获取-3脂肪酸更有益, 补充鱼油和海藻是增加摄入量的简单方法.

选择鱼油补充剂

鱼油中有两种主要的-3脂肪酸:EPA和DHA. 补品的比例各不相同. Your best bet for relieving the symptoms of ADHD is a supplement that has at least 2-3 times the amount of EPA to DHA.

治疗成人多动症的放松技巧

多动症的许多症状都可以通过 放松技巧,如冥想和瑜伽. 当练习持续, 这些镇静疗法可以提高注意力和注意力,减少冲动, anxiety, and depression.

Mindfulness meditation is a form of focused contemplation that relaxes the mind and the body and centers your thoughts. 研究人员表示,从长远来看, 冥想可以增加前额叶皮层的活动, 大脑中负责注意力的部分, planning, and impulse control. 在某种程度上,冥想是多动症的对立面. The goal of meditation is to train yourself to focus your attention with the goal of achieving insight. So, it’s a workout for your attention span that also might help you understand and work out problems. 也能帮助你更好地抵抗干扰, lower impulsivity, and improve your focus, 通过冥想培养专注力也可以提供帮助 更多地控制你的情绪这是许多患有多动症的成年人所面临的问题.

Yoga and related activities such as tai chi combine the physiological benefits of exercise with the psychological effects of meditation. 如果你发现自己过于活跃而无法调解,这种方法就会特别有效. You learn deep breathing and other relaxation techniques that help you become centered and mentally aware. By holding different postures for extended periods, you can cultivate balance and stillness. 当你感到不知所措或失控时, 你可以求助于瑜伽技巧来恢复精神,让你恢复精神平衡.

对成人多动症的治疗可以教你更好的应对技巧

多动症的治疗也意味着寻求外部帮助. Professionals trained in ADHD can help you learn new skills to cope with symptoms and change habits that are causing problems.

负担得起的注意力缺陷多动症在线治疗

从BetterHelp的注册治疗师网络获得专业帮助.

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一些疗法侧重于管理压力和愤怒或控制冲动行为, while others teach you how to handle time and money more effectively and improve your organizational skills.

Talk therapy. Adults with ADHD often struggle with issues stemming from longstanding patterns of underachievement, failure, academic difficulties, job turnover, and relationship conflict. 个别谈话疗法可以帮助你处理这种情感包袱, including low self-esteem, 你可能在孩童和青少年时期经历过的尴尬和羞愧的感觉, 还有对你身边人的唠叨和批评的怨恨.

婚姻家庭治疗. 婚姻和家庭治疗解决了 多动症会给你的人际关系带来问题 and family life, 比如金钱问题上的冲突, forgotten commitments, 家庭责任, and impulsive decisions. Therapy can help you and your loved ones explore these issues and focus on constructive ways of dealing with them and communicating with each other. Therapy can also improve your relationships by educating your partner and family members about ADHD.

认知行为疗法. 认知行为疗法 encourages you to identify and change the negative beliefs and behaviors that are causing problems in your life. Since many individuals with ADHD are demoralized from years of struggle and unmet expectations, one of the main goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy is to transform this negative outlook into a more hopeful, realistic view. 认知行为疗法 also focuses on the practical issues that often come with ADHD, such as disorganization, work performance problems, and poor time management.

成人多动症的教练和专业组织者

除了医生和治疗师, there are a number of other professionals who can help you overcome the challenges of adult ADHD.

成人多动症的行为指导 不是一种传统的治疗形式,但它可以是ADHD治疗中有价值的一部分. 与帮助人们解决情感问题的传统治疗师不同, 教练只关注日常生活中问题的实际解决方案. 行为教练教你组织家庭和工作环境的策略, structuring your day, prioritizing tasks, and managing your money. ADHD coaches may come to your home or talk with you on the phone rather than meet with you in an office; many coach-client relationships are long-distance.

成人多动症的专业组织者 如果你在整理你的物品或时间方面有困难,可以很有帮助吗. Organizers can help you reduce clutter发展更好的组织系统,并学会有效地管理你的时间. 一个专业的组织者来到你的家里或工作场所, 看看你的东西是如何组织的(或没有组织的), and then suggests changes. 除了帮你整理文件和支付账单, 专业的组织者对记忆和规划工具有一些建议, filing systems, and more. 一个专业的组织者也可以帮助你管理时间:你的任务, your to-do list, and your calendar.

Last updated: October 2021

  • References

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    Wolraich, M. L., Chan, E., Froehlich, T., Lynch, R. L., Bax, A., Redwine, S. T., Ihyembe, D., & Hagan, J. F. (2019). ADHD诊断和治疗指南:历史视角. Pediatrics, 144(4). http://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-1682

    Huang, H., Huang, H., Spottswood, M., & Ghaemi, N. (2020). Approach to Evaluating and Managing Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Primary Care. 哈佛精神病学评论,28(2),100-106. http://doi.org/10.1097/HRP.0000000000000248

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Get more help

Treatments for ADHD -包括各种类型的多动症治疗和疗法的描述. (MyADHD.com)

Coaching -多动症指导是如何起作用的,与其他干预措施有何不同. (CHADD)

Mindfulness and Adult ADHD (PDF) -正念如何帮助ADHD症状. (CHADD)

锻炼和多动症的大脑 ——锻炼是治疗多动症的一种方法. (ADDitude)

Hotlines and support

In the U.S.:在美国东部时间周一至周五下午1点至5点与多动症信息专家交谈,或搜索 Professional Directory 用于注意力缺陷多动症诊所和其他资源. (CHADD)

UK: Call ADDISS at or consult a list of support groups from AADD-UK.

Australia: Call the Health Direct 24小时咨询热线1或找到名单 ADHD Australia support groups.

Canada:  Find a support group in your area. (CADDAC)

India: Call the Vandrevala基金会帮助热线  at 1 or 1