365真人App uses cookies to improve your experience and to analyze performance and traffic on our website. 隐私政策

育儿

父母在冠状病毒

为人父母一直都是件难事, 但是家庭教育, 在家工作, 而围绕COVID-19的所有金融不确定性使其更加艰难. 这些育儿技巧可以帮助你应对.

Young girl wearing protective mask looks back towards us as she holds am adult relative's hand during an outdoor activity

COVID-19期间父母面临的独特压力

With many schools and workplaces closed due to the coronavirus pandemic, 365真人很多人都发现自己在和一个新的, 而且压力很大, 家庭状况. As well as having to work from home and run the household, you’re likely also trying to keep your kids on track with their virtual school work—all while enduring the restrictions of social distancing and even being cut off from the support of friends 和爱d ones. With the whole family often occupying the same space day after day, the strain can seem unrelenting. If you or your spouse have been furloughed or lost your source of income, 财政压力可能会增加更多的压力. 如果不加检查,这可能是一个配方 倦怠.

作为一个家长, it’s easy to feel that you have so many roles to fulfill that you can’t possibly perform any of them well. But it’s important to remind yourself that this is a unique situation, a global health emergency that none of us have had to face before. Don’t beat yourself up if you’re not functioning at your usual standard. 这也适用于你的工作质量, 你对房子的维护, or your ability to keep your kids focused on their schoolwork. 对自己宽容一些,遵循下面的建议来保持一种平衡感, you can keep your stress levels in check and make each day a little easier for your family—and for yourself.

负担得起的压力在线疗法

Get professional help from BetterHelp’s network of licensed therapists.

365真人App是读者支持的. 如果您通过提供的链接注册BetterHelp,365真人可能会收到佣金. 了解更多.

需要紧急帮助? 点击这里.

帮助你的孩子在线课程和学校作业

冠状病毒大流行让365真人许多人变成了事实上的家庭教师. 除了你所有的其他责任, you may be finding it difficult to keep your children on track or helping them with assignments, 特别是如果他们在不同的年级. Keep in mind that this is a stressful time for kids as well, 对他们来说,退化或表现出正常情况下不会出现的行为是正常的. 对你的孩子宽容一点可以帮助减少他们和你自己的压力水平.

[Read: 冠状病毒 焦虑: Coping with 压力, Fear, and Worry]

和其他家长一起努力. 安全联系或通过电话联系, 电子邮件, or social media and exchange tips for keeping kids focused and engaged. 这取决于你所在地区的限制条件, you may also want to organize a virtual activity or study group, which has the added bonus of providing social interaction for your child. Collaborating with other parents may help you feel less isolated as well.

和孩子的老师交流. Remember, they’re also getting through this by trial and error. 如果你孩子的学校仍然关闭, be honest about what is working with home tutoring and what isn’t. 你孩子的老师对他们的学术优势和劣势有很好的理解, 所以他们也许能帮你想出一个更个性化的学习计划.

制定一个学习计划. A routine gives kids a sense of normalcy during an otherwise 不确定的时间. 但如果这不是你的风格,你也不必疯狂地用不同颜色的时间表. Just create a general outline that you think you can maintain on most days that still leaves room for flexibility and down-time. If possible, try to designate a workspace for each member of the family.

设定目标,并庆祝目标的完成. Since so much has been stripped from our everyday lives, having something to look forward to can help kids stay motivated. 设置小奖励, 比如看一集最喜欢的电视节目, 能帮助他们解决令人不快的数学作业吗. 让全家人都参与进来. 如果你们都设定了一些目标,一起计划,你的孩子会看到你们是一个团队.

有创意地上课. 做科学实验, 例如, 或者用测量的方法烹饪, 这是一种将课程带入生活的好方法吗. 考虑孩子的长处. 如果他们喜欢画画和写作,现在是让他们自由使用铅笔和纸张的好时机.

Practice vulnerability (and encourage your kids to do the same)

Let’s face it: these are less-than-ideal circumstances, 在某一时刻, 国内冲突是必然会发生的. 当你开始感到沮丧时, 休息一段时间 and try to separate yourself before the situation escalates. 如果你真的发脾气了,等大家都冷静下来后再道歉. Be honest with your kids and let them know when you’re feeling overwhelmed. 与此同时,鼓励他们诚实地说出自己的感受和挫折.

处理孩子的恐惧和压力

在看了新闻或无意中听到成人关于疫情的谈话后, 小孩子可能会害怕. COVID-19改变了他们的学校教育, 友谊, 和日常工作, so it should be a top priority to address your child’s fears and reassure their physical and emotional well-being.

以适合年龄的水平说话. 如果你的孩子还小, 不要主动提供太多信息, 因为这可能会导致他们的想象力失控. 相反,试着回答他们可能提出的任何问题. It’s okay not to know everything; if your child is older, 帮助他们从美国找到准确的信息.S. 疾病控制和预防中心或世界卫生组织.

简单而诚实地回答问题. 如果你的孩子对大流行有疑问,要知道诚实永远是最好的政策. 但你不想吓到小孩子, there’s nothing wrong with talking about the need for taking safety precautions such as social distancing and washing their hands.

是理解. 如果你们一家人被迫隔离的话, your child will be disappointed at not being able to see friends or visit with other family members. 接受这一点. Explain to them that you understand their disappointment, and you are missing out on 友谊 and special occasions as well.

安排虚拟聚会。. Offer an alternative to in-person playdates via the Internet. 让你的孩子使用视频会议服务, 比如Skype或者Zoom, so they can keep in contact with close friends and grandparents, 例如.

给予额外的爱和感情. 对365真人所有人来说,这是一个充满压力的时刻,365真人都可以从额外的关爱中受益. 你的孩子会喜欢额外的拥抱和亲吻.

指定特殊的一对一时间. 如果每个人都在家里, 和每个孩子单独相处是建立更亲密关系的好方法. 让你的孩子选择一个你们两个人一起参加的活动.

找到值得感恩的事情. 每天晚上, share with your child one fun or positive thing you experienced that day and encourage them to do the same. 它可以是一项工作或学业成就, 一个家修理, or something as simple as witnessing a beautiful sunset. 这听起来可能有些老掉牙,但感恩和积极的经历可以给你带来快乐 从消极思维中解脱出来 而且真的能让你的家人心情好起来.

保持健康的例程

随着疫情的持续,你很容易忽视日常生活. 但是结构和一致性对孩子来说很重要. Maintaining regular mealtimes and bedtimes, 例如, can help your child feel safe and secure.

建立健康的新习惯. 当你重新适应新常态时,你可能需要为你的孩子建立新的日常安排. Even if things like bedtimes have changed without school every day, try to be consistent and follow the same schedule each day. 为运动之类的活动腾出时间, 家庭聚餐, 还有家务杂务以及孩子与朋友交往的时间, 无论是当面还是在网上都是安全的.

遵循安全建议. 不同的地区面临不同的限制, 重要的是要听从可靠消息来源的建议,比如疾控中心, 谁, 以及你们当地的公共卫生部门. 操场, 校园, and parks are all high-contact areas where your children should follow your instructions about keeping themselves and 其他人 safe. That may mean wearing a mask, maintaining social distancing, and regularly washing their hands.

强调卫生和洗手的重要性. Hand washing might have been a boring, mundane task in 2019, but now it can be a life-saving measure. Get your child into the routine of washing their hands every time they’ve been outside or come into contact with other people. 鼓励幼儿养成这种习惯, make up a song to the melody of one of your child’s favorites and sing it together while they wash their hands.

[Read: How to Cope with 创伤tic Events like 冠状病毒]

言行一致. Follow social distancing and other safety protocols yourself, 尊重他人, 保护弱势群体. Young children are impressionable and will mimic your behavior, 所以一定要树立一个积极的榜样.

规律就寝的重要性

这对孩子来说是很正常的 睡眠问题 在压力很大的时候. 有些人可能难以入睡, 其他人, 尤其是年幼的孩子, 可能会因为和爸爸妈妈分开而焦虑. 保持固定的就寝时间和有规律的夜间作息可以帮助解决这些问题.

  • Ensure your child goes to sleep and wakes up at the same time each day.
  • Establish a nightly bedtime routine, where the lights are dimmed and your child can unwind and relax.
  • Make sure all screens are turned off at least one hour before bedtime as the blue light from these devices can interfere with your child’s sleep-wake cycle. Try reading to your child or listening to an audiobook together, instead.
  • Offer extra physical affection in the form of hugs and kisses at night if your child needs reassurance.
  • 在你哄孩子上床睡觉之后, 作为父母,晚上花点时间放松自己是很重要的. Getting a good night’s sleep is just as important for you, as well.

管理行为问题

经常, 当孩子表现不好, 这是对他们所承受的压力的一种反应,也是他们发泄沮丧的一种方式. Try to keep this in mind when acting as a disciplinarian during these difficult times—and do your best to remain calm. 首先 控制自己的压力水平 通过锻炼, 健康的生活方式, 为娱乐腾出时间, 采取有规律的放松练习. 你就会越平静,越放松, the better you’ll be able to handle your child’s reactions to stress.

这些积极的纪律提示也会有所帮助:

  • 把你的孩子. 如果你的孩子行为不端, 把他们导向另一个活动, 比如在外面玩或者看书. 作为一名家长,你有时可以看出你的孩子什么时候开始变得焦躁不安. Take the opportunity to distract them with an interesting task or a fun game and you can curtail bad behavior before it starts.
  • 深深地吸一口气. 有很多方法 缓解此刻的压力 when you feel like you are losing patience with your child. 例如,深呼吸,数到十,让自己冷静下来. 然后你就可以用一种更平静、更积极的方式来回应孩子的行为.
  • 给你的孩子一个创造性的结果. 举个适时的例子, 如果你的孩子出门不带口罩, 让他们画一幅戴着面具的孩子的画,或者画一幅戴着面具的家人的画. Creative consequences simultaneously engage your child while also teaching them that their behavior was wrong.
  • 奖励好的行为, 比如完成学校的作业, 让他们的床上, 倒垃圾, 或者和他们的兄弟姐妹相处融洽. 在正常情况下, 你可能不会奖励这种行为, 但在这紧张的时刻, 任何积极的东西都不应该被忽视.
  • 永远不要对你的孩子大喊大叫或打他的屁股. Losing your temper in this way will only damage your relationship and impact your child’s sense of safety and security.
  • 有时候,什么都不做可能是最好的. Ignoring bad behavior can be an extremely effective tool when trying to get your child to stop doing something. 当一个小孩想要得到关注的时候, not giving it to them can make them realize that they should either stop or find a more respectful way of finding attention.

监控孩子使用社交媒体的情况

在这个社会疏远和孤立的时候, many of us—and our kids—are relying on the Internet and social media to keep in touch with friends and family and up to date on the news. 虽然它有很多积极的方面, social media can also negatively affect your child’s levels of stress, 焦虑, 和不确定性.

如果你担心孩子使用社交媒体, 你可能会试图限制他们访问他们的手机或其他设备. 但这可能会产生更多的问题, separating your child from their friends when they need them most. 相反,有其他的方法来监控他们的在线活动并帮助他们 以更负责任的方式使用社交媒体.

教育青少年

Dealing with the pandemic can be especially tough on adolescents, who are missing out on key moments in their young lives. Many are spending long periods separated from their friends and are missing important school events such as exams, 舞蹈, 和毕业典礼. 而 青少年时期总是困难的, your child may be even more angsty, moody, or defiant at the moment than is normal for their age.

当然,与青少年建立联系并不容易. You may despair over how much your teen withdraws from you or how hard it is to communicate with them, but that doesn’t mean they don’t still need your attention, 建议, 和爱. 当你试图让你的孩子敞开心扉和你交谈时,首先要让谈话轻松一些. 坚持谈论你知道他们会喜欢的话题, 比如他们最喜欢的艺术家, 运动队, 电影, 作者, or friends rather than subjects where you’ll likely disagree. 一旦你聊天, you can move on to more difficult subjects such as the pandemic and other things going on in their life.

[Read: Dealing with Uncertainty During the 冠状病毒 Pandemic]

多花些时间和孩子在一起可以帮助他们敞开心扉,向你吐露心声. 试一试:

  • 一起做饭和吃饭. 烹饪 one of your teen’s favorite meals with them offers an opportunity to talk about what’s going on in their life. Try to schedule dinners around the table with no distractions from phones, 电视, 或者其他设备,这样你们就可以像一家人一样交谈了.
  • 园艺在一起. 园艺是保持紧密联系的好方法, 因为这是一个相当温顺的活动,给了时间交谈和加强亲子关系.
  • 一起做运动或锻炼. 许多青少年都喜欢 让自己的身体无论是花时间做运动,在健身房锻炼,还是去跑步. 试试投篮、踢足球、扔飞盘、打高尔夫球或网球. 做在一起, 它被证明是一种很好的减压方式,也是增进感情的好机会.

和你的孩子谈论COVID-19

While young children may be frightened about the pandemic, 大一点的孩子和青少年更容易被它带来的限制所困扰. Spending time with their peers is extremely important to teenagers, so they may rebel against social distancing guidelines. If you’re finding it difficult to enforce the rules or your interactions always feel like a power struggle, 不要绝望. There are ways to get through this time without becoming a drill sergeant or turning your home into a war zone.

[阅读:冠状病毒心理健康工具包:度过COVID冬季]

Explain why social distancing and other rules are important. Teenagers tend to feel invincible at the best of times. 在这大流行, 他们知道,这种病毒对他们的风险可能不像对老年人那样大. 但这并不意味着他们不会传播疾病,不会给他人造成极大的痛苦. 解释一下,即使他们感觉很好, 他们仍然可能是无症状携带者,并将病毒传染给那些最危险的人, 包括他们自己的祖父母或其他有潜在健康问题的家庭成员.

同情他们的挫折. 同情他们因疫情而被迫放弃的事情. Validate their feelings and listen without trying to convince them that they’ll be fine or reminding them that 其他人 have it worse. 分享你自己的失望和挫折会让你在同一个团队中. 如果你所在地区的限制使你的孩子很难见到他们的朋友, encourage them to be creative with how they interact virtually.

鼓励正念

像你一样,你的孩子不太可能在这种尺度上经历过不确定性. 他们可能会担心自己的未来, especially if they’re missing college admission tests or summer activities expected to help them with applications or scholarships. 年龄稍大的孩子可能会担心秋季是否还能重返大学.

练习正念冥想 encourages you to experience all these difficult emotions without judgment. In these difficult times, it can benefit both you and your teenage kids. Remind them that it’s okay to feel stressed and anxious, but they should try not to dwell on worst-case scenarios. After all, even in the best of times, an element of uncertainty is still an unavoidable part of life.

最近更新:2020年9月

得到更多的帮助

冠状病毒父母:管理愤怒和沮丧 – Gives tips on how to handle common scenarios during this time. (孩子的思想研究所)

Parenting in a Pandemic: Tips to Keep the Calm at Home -通过保持健康的日常活动帮助孩子感到安全, 管理自己的行为, 和建筑的弹性. (健康ychildren.org)

Parenting in the age of COVID-19: Coping with six common challenges -六种常见育儿挑战的答案. (波士顿儿童医院)

现在就“足够好”是可以的 -现在想成为一个真正的好父母是不可能的,所以要把目标定在足够好. (美国焦虑与抑郁协会)

Co-Parenting Through COVID-19: Putting Your 孩子们 First – Parenting at this time following a separation or divorce. (健康ychildren.org)

新冠肺炎(COVID-19)育儿小贴士 – Expert tips to help you deal with COVID-19 育儿 challenges.(联合国儿童基金会)