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A 哈佛大学 健康 article

How to Build an 锻炼 Plan

A Guide to Getting Started and Developing a Balanced Plan

一名身穿运动衫的年轻女子微笑着沿着土路跑着,胳膊上绑着手机音乐播放器

What type of exercise should you do?

There is no single type of exercise that can take care of all your needs. 事实上, to get the most benefits from your routine, you want a mix of activities during the course of a week. 否则, it’s like a diet consisting only of fruit—healthful as far as it goes, but lacking a lot of the nutrients you’ll find in other foods, 如鱼, 蔬菜, 坚果, 和粗粮.

Developing a balanced exercise plan

So what does a balanced exercise plan consist of? The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans from the U.S. 美国卫生与公众服务部敦促所有成年人在每周例行活动中进行以下几种锻炼:

  • 每周150分钟的适度有氧运动(例如,每五天30分钟)
    or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity (or an equiva- lent mix of the two).
  • 每周进行两次或两次以上的力量训练,中间至少要有48小时的时间来锻炼肌肉
    恢复.
  • balance exercises for older adults at risk for falls.

如果这一切听起来让人喘不过气来,请记住,锻炼可以分成更小的部分. 例如,3次10分钟的步行可以让你达到每天30分钟有氧运动的目标.

每个锻炼还应该包括在开始时简单的热身和结束时的冷却. The warm-up should consist of gentle exercise, such as marching in place, to loosen up your muscles and get more oxygen-rich blood flowing to them. 冷却, slow your activity and the intensity for five to 10 minutes, then finish off with str等hes to help prevent stiffness.

继续阅读,更深入地了解平衡锻炼计划的每个组成部分,并建议混合活动和锻炼来让你继续.

Aerobic exercise (cardio)

Often called cardio or endurance activities, aerobic activities are great for burning calories and paring down unwanted fat. They consist of activities that make the heart and lungs work harder: think of walking, 骑自行车, 运行, 和游泳, 例如.

Aerobic exercise temporarily boosts your heart rate and breathing, allowing more oxygen to reach your muscles and tuning up cardiovascular endurance. 这些活动可以降低许多疾病的风险,延长寿命.

How much should you do?

《365真人App》(Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans)建议每周至少进行两个半小时的适度有氧运动, or one hour and 15 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity. (Note: If you prefer a mix, 10 minutes of vigorous activity equals roughly 20 minutes of moderate activity.) Raising your weekly goal to five hours of moderate activity, or two-and-a-half hours of vigorous activity, nets additional health benefits, especially weight loss. Each session should last at least 10 minutes.

开始

步行对于任何年龄或健康水平的人来说通常是安全的,并且可以很容易地调整到一个舒适的速度. It doesn’t jar joints or raise your heart rate to dangerous levels. For a greater challenge, you can add time, 距离, or hills to improve endurance or use resistance bands to tone while you walk.

Follow these tips to get the best workout from your walks:

Find a safe place to walk. Quiet streets with side- walks, 公园的小路, athletic tracks at local schools, or shopping malls are often good choices.

Buy a good pair of shoes. Look for supportive but flexible soles that cushion your feet. Comfort is the key when buying shoes for walking. Shop at the end of the day when your feet are at their largest size. Choose shoes with “breathable” uppers, such as nylon mesh.

Dress for comfort and safety. Wear lighter clothes than you’d need if standing still. Dress in layers so you can peel off garments if you get hot. Light-colored clothes and a reflective vest help drivers notice you.

Do a five-minute warm-up and cool-down. Start off at a slower pace for your warm-up. At the end of your walk, slow down to cool down (even if you’re not sweaty).

Practice good technique:

  • Walk at a brisk, steady pace. Slow down if you’re too breathless to carry on a conversation.
  • 站高.
  • Hold your head up so your chin is level and look 10 to 20 feet in front of you.
  • 抬起你的胸部.
  • Keep your 肩膀 down.
  • Point your toes straight ahead.
  • Let your arms swing loosely at your sides. If you want to boost your speed, bend your elbows at 90-degree angles and swing your hands from waist to 胸部 height.
  • 用脚后跟着地,然后向前滚,用前脚掌支撑脚尖.
  • Take comfortable strides. To go faster, take quicker steps instead of longer ones.

Strength training

Strength or resistance training, which typically employs equipment such as weight machines, 自由重量器械, or resistance bands or tubing, protects against bone loss and builds muscle. It also improves your body’s ratio of lean muscle mass to fat. It, too, deserves an important place in your exercise routine.

从技术上讲, 每当你的肌肉面对比平时更强的反作用力时,力量或阻力训练就会进行, such as pushing against a wall or lifting a dumbbell. Using progressively heavier weights or increasing resistance makes muscles stronger. Aside from toning you, 力量训练为你提供日常活动所需的功能性力量,比如搬东西, 爬楼梯, rising from a chair, rushing for the bus—with ease.

How much should you do?

《365真人》建议加强对所有主要肌肉群(腿部)的锻炼, 臀部, 回来, 胸部, 腹部, 肩膀, and arms) two or more times a week, with at least 48 hours between sessions. 根据一些研究,每次练习一组是有效的,不过两到三组可能更好. Repeat each exercise eight to 12 times (reps). 你的身体至少需要48小时的恢复和修复在力量训练期间,以建立更多的肌肉和变得更强.

开始

These tips for safe strength training will help you get the most from your workouts:

Focus on form, not weight. Align your body correctly and move smoothly through each exercise. Poor form can prompt injuries. Many experts suggest starting with no weight, or very light weight, when learning a strength training routine. 在分离肌肉群的同时,集中精力做缓慢、平稳的举举和均匀控制的下降动作. 你通过将身体保持在一个特定的位置,有意识地收缩和释放目标肌肉来隔离肌肉.

节奏,节奏. Tempo helps you stay in control rather than undercut strength gains through momentum. 例如, count to four while lifting a dumbbell, 保持两个, then count to four while lowering it to the starting position.

呼吸. Blood pressure increases during a work- out, but it rises even more if you hold your breath while performing strength exercises. To avoid steep increases, exhale as you lift, push, or pull; inhale as you release. To make sure that you’re not holding your breath, count your tempo aloud. You can’t hold your breath when you’re talking.

Keep challenging muscles. The right weight differs depending on the exercise. 选择一种重量,在最后两组重复中使目标肌肉疲劳,同时还能保持良好的姿势. If you can’t do the minimum number of reps, choose a lighter weight. When it feels too easy, as if you could continue doing reps, challenge your muscles again by adding weight (roughly 1 to 2 pounds for arms, 2 to 5 pounds for legs) or using a stronger resistance band. 交替, you can add another set of reps to your workout (up to three sets), or work out additional days per week. If you add weight, remember that you should be able to do the minimum number of reps with good form, and the targeted muscles should feel tired by the last two reps.

Give muscles time off

Strenuous exercise like strength training causes tiny tears in muscle tissue. These tears are good, not bad: muscles grow stronger as the tears knit up. Always allow at least 48 hours between sessions for muscles 恢复. So, if you do a strenuous full-body strength workout on Monday, wait until at least Wednesday to repeat it. It is fine to do aerobic exercise on the days between your strength training. If you’re doing a partial-body strength session, 然而, you might do upper-body exercises on Monday, lower-body exercises on Tuesday, upper-body exercises on Wednesday, lower-body exercises on Thursday, 等., and also do aerobic exercise on as many days as possible.

Balance exercises

Our sense of balance typically worsens as we age. 神经病变(糖尿病或某些化疗药物的并发症)等疾病可能会进一步损害它,导致刺痛, 疼痛, and numbness in the feet; side effects from other medications; uncorrected vision problems; or a lack of flexibility. Poor balance often leads to falls, 哪些会导致头部损伤以及暂时性或永久性的骨骼和神经系统损伤. 特别是髋部骨折,可导致严重的健康并发症,损害独立性.

Older adults at risk for falls can benefit from a combination of walking, strength training, and balance exercises. Balance-enhancing activities include tai chi, yoga, and Pilates. 力量训练锻炼腹部和背部的核心肌肉也有助于平衡.

How much should you do?

For older adults at risk for falls, 指南建议每周进行三次30分钟的平衡训练和肌肉强化训练, plus at least 30 minutes of walking activities twice or more weekly.

Flexibility exercises

伸展运动和瑜伽等柔韧性运动可以温和地扭转肌肉的缩短和收紧,这些肌肉通常会随着年龄的增长而缩短和收紧. 更短的, 僵硬的肌肉纤维会使你容易受伤,导致背部疼痛和平衡问题.

经常进行隔离和拉伸肌肉和肌腱周围的弹性纤维的锻炼有助于抵消这种影响. A well-str等hed muscle more easily achieves its full range of motion. This improves athletic performance—imagine an easier, less restricted golf swing or tennis serve—and functional abilities, such as reaching, 弯曲, or stooping during daily tasks. 伸展运动也能让你在早晨动起来,或者在漫长的一天之后放松. Activities such as yoga combine str等hing and relaxation and also improve balance, a wonderful combination.

然而, note that experts no longer recommend str等hing before exercise. Prolonged str等hing impedes the maximum contractile force of muscles. 例如, str等hing prior to jumping decreases jump height. 而不是, experts now recommend starting off your exercise with a warm-up, 比如轻松的散步,或者特定的运动项目,比如在比赛前打网球和练习击球. This increases the movement of blood and oxygen to the muscles. 然后, when muscles are warm and pliable—例如, after five to 10 minutes of exercise—you can str等h. Or, even better, do your flexibility exercises as your post-workout cool-down.

How much should you do?

《365真人》并没有提出将柔韧性锻炼作为日常活动的一部分的具体建议. 然而, 美国运动医学学院建议老年人在有氧运动或力量运动的同一天进行柔韧性锻炼, or at least twice a week.

开始

When starting a str等hing routine, follow these tips for safety:

  • Check with your doctor. If you have joint disease or arthritis, or if you’ve had a joint replacement, check with your doctor before starting str等hing exercises.
  • 先暖身. Warm muscles are more flexible. 先做5到10分钟的热身运动,或者在运动后做一些伸展运动.
  • Str等h all muscle groups. Just as with strength training, str等hing should include all muscle groups.
  • 没有反弹. Never bounce as you str等h. 这会触发收缩反射,实际上会收紧你想要放松的肌肉.
  • Feel mild tension only. Extend your muscle to the point where you feel mild tension and hold that position. You should never feel 疼痛.
  • 呼吸. 呼吸 easily through your nose while str等hing.
  • 持有和重复. 最好的方法是坚持伸展10 - 30秒,每次伸展2 - 6次,持续1分钟.

Adapted with permission from Starting to 锻炼, a special health report published by 哈佛大学 健康 Publishing.